Thursday, August 23, 2012

What Does an MOT Examiner (Ministry of Transport) Look For?

Inside the car
· Operation of lights.
Dip to main beam working, including the operation of the main beam warning light on dash (shows in blue). The operation of the rear fog light switch making sure in stays on and switches off, with the warning light showing up either on the dash or on the switch. Indicator switch is operated to make sure the warning lights are displayed on the dash and cancel ok.
· Horn operation. Must be audible.
· Wiper and wash operation. Must operate and washers must work and hit the screen, and wipers must clear the screen.
· Anti-lock braking system (ABS) if fitted. To check this, turn the ignition on, but don't start the engine. The light should be visual on the dash, with the engine running it should be off. (With Range Rovers and Land Rovers the light does not go off until you are moving).
· Foot brake operation. With this the tester will be checking the operation of your brake servo. With the engine off, operate the foot brake several times until the pedal goes hard. With your foot resting on the foot brake start the engine; you should feel your foot sinking on the brake pedal, which shows you the servo, is operating, as it should do.
· Foot brake and clutch pedal. Must have grip rubbers on the pedals to stop your foot from slipping off. · Handbrake operation. Must stay on and release with free travel still left in handbrake mechanism.
· Operation of front doors. Should be able to open both front doors from inside.
· Front and rear seats. The tester will check the security of the backrests to make sure they don't fall forward of there own free will, and will check the base for security on the anchor points.
· Play in the steering column. Must be no excessive play in the steering column bearings. To check this the tester will hold the steering wheel at these points on the steering wheel, which is at 15.00 and at 21.00 and will rock the steering wheel side to side and then will do the same at these points, 0.00 and at 18.00. Side movement would be next, in which the tester will move the steering wheel from lock to lock to check for free play in the steering system. You are allowed a certain amount, which normally occurs with vehicles fitted with steering boxes.
Out side the vehicle
· Checking the windscreen for defects. The examiner will check for cracks and stone chips. UK law is that anything bigger than 10mm in diameter on the drivers; side is a failure. Drivers side being zone A, which is from one side of the steering wheel to the other side of the wheel with vertical lines going up the screen. Zone B is passenger side, which should have nothing bigger than 40mm in diameter.
· Checking the wiper rubbers. By lifting up the wiper arms of the screen you can check the rubbers for damage. They should not be coming away from the blade, as this is a failure.
· Operation of doors. Must be able to open all doors from the outside and should be secure when shut.
· Seat belts. The examiner will extend all the seat belts fully and check for fraying and cuts to the webbing. Lastly fasten all the seat belts into their stalks making sure they are secure and cannot be removed until you press the release button.
· Checking structural points. With this, the examiner will check the top of the sills and the A and B pillars for any rot, which could weaken the vehicle, including seat belt anchorage points. Also will check the boot floor and rear panel for any rot.
· Checking the lights. All lights must work except the reverse lights and front fog lights, which are not a legal requirement. Failures on this are, bulbs not working, reflectors, which are broken and missing. Indicator bulbs showing a white light that's if the lens is clear plastic. Faded colour lenses or incorrect colour given, by having a broken lens or all lights incorrectly displayed at the same time, normally caused by a bad earth in the system.
· Headlight aim. This is one of the points you will not be able to check, as only the garages would have this equipment to check this.
Under the bonnet
· Structural check. Checking top shock absorber mounts for corrosion, and chassis. Slam panel at the front close to structural mounts. Bulk head for corrosion especially around the brake servo area.
· Brake pipes. The examiner will ask the assistant to operate the brake pedal with the engine running, firstly checking the brake fluid level then going onto checking for leaks from the system including brake servo vacuum pipes and also looking at brake pipes for excessive corrosion which could lead to brake failure and security. To fail pipes they must be badly corroded and also they tend to loose their thickness down to that fact. Please note it is down to the examiner to determine whether to pass or fail the pipes.
· Steering. Asking the assistant to rock the steering from lock to lock the examiner will be looking at the lower steering column universal joint (U/J) that's if one is fitted for any free play or a rubber mounting for any defects where it goes directly onto the steering rack or steering box.
Under the vehicle
· Exhaust system. Must be free of excessive leaks, i.e. cracked pipes or cracked silencers or joints, also must be secure on all mounts.
· Brake pipes and brake hoses. Looking for excessive corrosion and security as before on brake pipes and must not be fouling moving parts. Brake hoses must be free of deep cuts and bulges. Rule of thumb with brake hoses, to check cut bend hose to see if you can see the cord showing. If you can then it would be a failure. If in doubt! Then ask a garage.
· Brake load valve. This is fitted on the rear axle, which determines the amount of force applied to the rear brakes when you have weight in the back of the vehicle. To check this it, the arm must move on the valve via the spring attached to the axle.
· Chassis. This is pretty hard as there are certain set ups. Most four wheel drives have a separate chassis away from the floor pan while a car can have this integrated to all in one, making the outer sills a structural point of the vehicle. So if in doubt ask. Anyway the main point is this. You need to keep an eye out for major rot near structural points, like suspension plus sub-frames, steering, seat anchorages and seat belt anchorages. If in doubt! Then ask a garage.
· Suspension. There are various set up's for suspension, the most popular is independent suspension where each wheel as its own suspension arms, from a torsion bar going across the rear axle, to a leaf spring set up used on each individual wheel on the rear axle.
I think that is enough to be going on with, so I will tell you what to look out for on each individual one.
On independent suspensions, you will need to check all suspension bushes for condition and wear using a lever bar with the suspension hanging down and not under load.
The torsion bar set up is found on the rear of the vehicle, joining both the rear wheels together on the same axle. As with independent suspension it must be hanging down and free from load. You need to check the axle bushes for wear.
Leaf springs are normally found on the rear of the vehicle. The things to look out for are; cracks in the leaf springs, broken U- bolts and loose U- bolt nuts, which tighten them to the axle. Also you will need to check the shackle bushes for wear, which support the leaf spring at the front and the rear. To check this you will need a certain amount of load on the vehicles axle.
There are various set up's on shock absorbers where they are independent from the coil springs or the most popular which is when its integrated with the coil spring, which is commonly called a suspension strut. With shock absorber and suspension struts shocks you will need to look for leaks, the condition of the top and bottom shock absorber mounts for wear, also the operation comes into play. To check this the vehicle must be on the ground. Using your weight bounce up and down on vehicle on the side you want to test, and then let go and count the amount of times it takes to settle. You will need to look for no more than two bounces. (To check top strut mounts see Steering) Looking at the coil springs you will need to check that they are not broken, through corrosion and are sitting correctly.
Now onto Anti-roll bars, which are a part of a typical suspension system, this helps the vehicle on cornering and gives the vehicle good stability. This is a metal bar, which goes across the front of the vehicle and rear if fitted, joining both the front suspension arms and rear suspension arms together via links on the lower suspension arms. The actual anti-roll bar is also attached to either the sub-frame or body of the vehicle through rubber mounts. You need to check the links for security and wear, either in the ball joints top and bottom or rubber bushes for separation. The anti-roll bar support bushes will also need to be checked for condition and separation.
· Handbrake cables on the rear must be in good working order and must not be frayed. The cables must be supported via the brackets to the body.
· Steering. There are mainly two types the most common is rack and pinion, which is where the steering column goes directly into the rack, which then goes to your front wheels. The other is a steering box, which is commonly used on four-wheel drives, vans and heavy goods vehicles. This is when the steering column goes directly to the steering box, which then uses steering arms from there to your wheels.
Rack and pinion; With the vehicle still jacked up and resting on axle stands, you will need to check lower and top (If fitted) suspension arm ball joints which are attached to the hub assembly for wear using a lever bar, using the tyre to lever up on. Sometimes in this situation you will find no movement but if you jack up the suspension arm from underneath and lever up on the tyre any movement will show up. Next you will need to check the steering track rod end ball joint, this shows up when you move the steering from side to side using the wheel. You will need to look for play in the ball joint and steering arm coming from the steering rack. Sometimes you do get a certain amount of play in the steering rack arm, but as long as it's not excessive it should be fine. If in doubt ask a garage.
Steering rack gaiters on the steering rack need to be checked. The covers should be free from splits and secure on the rack.
Steering box; As above with the vehicle on axle stands, you will need to look at the drop arm ball joint coming down from the steering box as well as checking all steering rod ball joints and track rod end ball joints for wear plus checking the lower and upper suspension arm ball joints which are attached to the hub assembly.
Wheel bearings; The two things to check for are free play in the bearing and noise. Firstly at 12.00 o'clock and 6 o'clock positions on the tyre rock the wheel to check for play, which should be minimal. You're aiming at 1-5mm play. For noise, spin the wheel to check for rumbling noises coming from the wheel bearing.
Tyre condition; You will need to check all tyre sizes on the vehicle, excluding the spare for correct size, secondly checking the condition of the side walls for bulging and cracks which could show up the internal cords of the tyre, and thirdly the tyre tread for wear. U.K law states the tyre must have 1.6mm tread across three quarters of the tread. This has always been a sticky subject, so if you're not sure ask a garage.
Brakes; At this point the examiner will check your brake discs and pads for condition. The rule of thumb is if the examiner can visually see your pads then they will be checked. If the examiner can't see with out taking the hubcap of or the wheel then they won't be tested. To fail pads they would nearly need to be close to metal to metal with the disc. For brake discs they would need to be badly worn or badly corroded. Brake calipers are also checked for leaks and security.
Vehicle on the ground
Emissions; This is one of those items you can not check, the only thing you can check for is excessive smoke from the exhaust caused by engine wear (blue smoke) it has to be pretty bad to fail, in other words you can not see the vehicle behind you. Other than that it's down to the garage to test your catalytic converter for operation.
Brake roller test; Sorry folks, yep this is another test you can not perform as the garages can only do this on there equipment, but you can do a simple test and that's to make sure the vehicle is braking in a straight line. In other words the steering wheel is not pulling to one side when under braking, this will show up any binding brakes on the front.

Do-It-Yourself Bath Faucet Repair

A leaky faucet is a common home-plumbing problem. When left unattended, this leads to water damage and stained fixtures. While all faucets share certain common characteristics, it is essential to know the Gate Valve design of the faucet to be fixed. This helps in determining the necessary replacement parts, as well as the required techniques.
Compression Faucet
Repairing a compression faucet requires a screwdriver, an adjustable wrench, a razor knife, O-rings and washers. Shut water supply off. Open faucet and drain. Pull index cap off. Remove handle screw. Loosen retaining nut with wrench and pull out by hand. Use screwdriver to remove stem. Pull washer off and replace with a new one. Cut O-ring off using utility knife. Use heat-proof grease to coat and then slip back on to stem. Arrange stem in the faucet body. Install the retaining nut, handle and screw. Turn water on and check for leaks.
Ball-type Faucet
This job requires a repair kit, screwdriver, channel-type pliers, utility knife, and an Allen wrench. Shut off water supply and drain faucet. Loosen handle setscrew with the Allen wrench. Tighten adjusting ring with wrench included in repair kit. Replace handle and turn water on. If the faucet still leaks, turn water off and remove handle. Using the channel-type pliers, unscrew cap and remove cam, washer and ball. Remove valve seats and spring. Twist upwards to remove spout. Grease new O-rings and replace old ones. Install spout, valve seats, spring, cam, washer and ball. Screw cap on and install handle. Test for leaks.
Ball Sleeve-type Cartridge Faucet
Necessary tools are channel-type pliers, needle hose pliers, utility knife, screwdriver and O-rings. Shut water pressure off and drain faucet. Detach index cap and handle screw. Lift off handle. Remove retaining nut with channel-type pliers. Use needle-nose pliers to pull retaining clip. Pull out the old cartridge with channel-type ZD Valve pliers. Twist off spout and remove old O-rings. Install new ones and replace spout. Tighten retaining nut with pliers. Slip inner lever over retaining nut. Replace handle, screw and index cap. Test for leaks.
Disc-type Cartridge Faucet
This bath faucet repair requires a screwdriver, a new cartridge and an Allen wrench. Shut water supply off and drain faucet. Remove index cap with screwdriver. Take out handle screw and faucet handle. Use the Allen wrench to loosen setscrew and remove handle insert. Unscrew dome cap. Remove cartridge mounting screws and detach cartridge. Replace cartridge. Tighten mounting screws. Screw dome cap on. Reassemble handle insert, handle, handle screw and index cap. Test for leaks.

Tuesday, August 21, 2012

Essential Application of Aluminum Items in our Lives

Aluminum, proudly owning to its desirable physical properties, continues to be commonly adopted in several facets of the economic system.
For a lightweight structural content, aluminum items these kinds of as aluminum composite panel are applicable to the manufacturing of shipping and delivery cars because of to its gentle excess weight and strong energy. Plane, missiles, rockets and synthetic satellites, especially, have necessitated enormous demand for aluminum coils and aluminum composite panel. The weight of aluminum solutions utilised in a very supersonic plane accounts for seventy p.c of its total pounds. Cars manufactured of aluminum resources could functionality to promote electricity reduction; aluminum foil and aluminum composite panel are employed because the structural content in the domestic building. The quantity of aluminum used in power transmission tops other types of product. All in all, aluminum composite panel is just about everywhere in our lives. What helps make aluminum such a appealing substance inside our lives?
Initial, the density of aluminum is extremely compact, roughly 2.7 g/cm3. Though it is very gentle, it could be the main material for aluminum coils along with other aluminum alloys that are extensively employed in cars, trains, transport together with other producing industries.
Second, the electric power conductivity of aluminum composite panel is just 2nd to silver and copper. Although its conductivity is 2 thirds of copper, its density is only one third of copper; hence, it takes considerably less aluminum to transmit the identical quantity of electrical energy as opposed to copper. The oxide to the area on the aluminum possesses not only satisfactory efficiency in corrosion resistance but also fascinating insulation characteristic. This makes aluminum incredibly appropriate in electrical production market, wire and cable trade and wi-fi radio trade.
Third, aluminum is taken into account to be a fantastic heat conductor with its warmth conducting capability thrice higher than iron. Aluminum may very well be accustomed to make numerous types of heat exchangers, cooling product and cookers. Moreover, the positive ductility of aluminum causes it to be an appropriate product for aluminum foil manufacturing. Aluminum foil is often adopted substance for cigarettes packaging and candy packaging.
Fourth, the sunshine reflection qualities of aluminum are relatively spectacular. Aluminum triumphs silver when it comes to UV reflection. The purer the aluminum composite panel is, the greater its reflective houses will be. This aspect of aluminum has created a probability for it to be used to manufacture reflective mirror of top of the range.
Persons have little by little formulated some new aluminum-containing compounds in recent times. Along with the development in science and know-how, it's believed that persons will occur up with more useful techniques to make use of aluminum and aluminum compounds to profit human beings.

An Introduction To Valves

In this modern society, valves are considered very useful components in different processes of manufacturing and systems of supply. If you look around you, values are part of every household. They are responsible for controlling the flow of all types of liquid, as well as the rate, pressure, volume and the direction. Not only that, valves control the direction of different gases, slurries and other dry materials through a pipe or any other type of passageway. Without these valves, there will be no automatic heat, public utilities or Gate Valve fresh water, and there will be no energy of any kind.
There are several types of valves, including EGR valves, solenoid valves and ball valves. These valves can be turned on or off, and can be regulated. They are very effective at modulating or isolating fluids.
EGR valves or exhaust gas recirculation valves serve as the intake and exhaust valves in automobiles that open at the appropriate time in order to let in a mixture of fuel and air and to let out exhaust. Car emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution, and so automotive engineers use these EGR valves in order to reduce emissions.
Solenoid valves, on the other hand, are electromagnetic device that are usually found in automotive starter systems, industrial air hammers and electric bell assemblies. These are also used on several other machines that require power in order to make a specific part move.
Meanwhile, ball valves are valves that integrate a mounted or floating ball design that can be used for control and shut-off purposes. These valves are used on many applications such as allied process industries, chemical processing industries and corrosive and cryogenic services.
Even though these valves are used in different applications, they only have one purpose and that is to become invaluable components in this modern day society.

Friday, August 17, 2012

Custom Kitchen Remodeling - Using Your Imagination to Design a Kitchen That Will Be the Envy of All

The best kitchen remodel template you can ever find is not the one that you stole from Jerry the architect's office when you went visiting the other day, or the one you saw in Los Angeles the Check Valve last time you were in the Sin City. Your kitchen does not even have to be remodeled after that of Bill Gates, or according to the picture you saw in a chef's kitchen in Italy. You may not have thought of it, but the best kitchen remodel you can do is one that comes right out of your own imagination.
You can pick one idea from here or there, and you can throw in a twist from something you saw or experienced in Freede Valve the past, but you cannot have a custom built kitchen that you will appreciate unless it is a kitchen that was built precisely with you in mind. When it comes to that, you have to see that you take your time planning it and mapping out your strategy before you even begin, because you can make a big botch of it otherwise.
Remodeling your kitchen to suit your specific tastes is sure to take some hard work. For the most part, you may even want to consider doing it yourself; however that will depend almost entirely on the extent of work you need done within the kitchen space. Certainly there are bound to be repairs needed in the kitchen, like a faulty or broken valve, a leaky sink or pipe, a busted wall socket, cracked tiles, and peeling paint, to name but a few. For a surety, you are also going to need a few new appliances brought in from outside, and a few of the old ones gotten rid of. After all, what you are trying to do is to customize your kitchen by modernizing it for the latest century.
The point is that whatever your imagination tells you can be done and if you do it with some moderation you will end up with a really unique and customized kitchen that just might end up being the envy of all that behold it. Trust me, it can happen.
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Powerful Revenue Strategies for Aluminum Merchandise

Unlike product sales of other solutions and industries, it takes more than eloquence and skillful communication to efficiently promote some industrial aluminum door frames. Salesmen really have to concentrate to some details as well as the actual necessities of the consumers in order to get the enterprise performed.
First of all, it can be of important benefits that salesmen in aluminum market possess acute insight. It can be achievable that individuals who would like to get aluminum pipe have not made a decision which sort to buy but have indicated dense interest within a certain form of aluminium foil container suppliers. Salesmen, below this situation, ought to spend less the chit-chat and go straight for the position of introducing the advantages of the specific sort of aluminum products towards the customer. Obviously, the precondition is always that salesmen can easily observe what individuals are thinking of if they stage into your retailer.
Second, salesmen in aluminum market need to master to compose when shoppers inquire in regards to the cost of the merchandise. A sizable number of people are usually not sincere prospective buyers because it is extremely possible that they are just inquiring concerning the cost. Unless of course the salesmen are absolutely selected that customers will buy the products, tend not to give the real price tag from the products and solutions.
Third, salesmen should master to appeal to the attention on the people and intrigue them with particular discussion starters. For example, salesmen could say for the buyer that is lingering in front of aluminum profile technique that: this buy Aluminum Pipe technique for sale is of good quality and it's only out there for three days. The customer will then be intrigued to meticulously examine this aluminum profile program available and the likelihood of closing a deal is considerably higher.
Fourth, salesmen should really possess some analytical know-how. Normally, individuals are generally much less enthusiastic about the item following salesmen have discovered a obscure selling price. In this particular regard, salesmen ought to examine for the consumers why this product expenses a lot of. Salesmen must exhibit enough affected individual when telling the individuals the place the value on the merchandise is originated from. Salesmen really should also know that it is a lame system to defame other aluminum vendors to be able for making on their own appearance excellent. Salesmen could emphasize the worth of your adopted product, novel layout with the products and delightful processing technological innovation to convince the individuals which the merchandise justifies these types of a rate.
The higher than pointed out 4 recommendations are simple profits strategies salesmen in aluminum trade should have. Naturally, you will find other useful strategies on the net salesmen could refer to if you want to be a successful salesman during this trade.
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